Prospective Study to compare Intra-articular versus Intravenous Tranexemic Acid in reducing Post-operative Blood Loss in staged bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty
The number of total knee arthroplasties (TKA) performed is around two million annually worldwide and this number is expected to increase fivefold by 2025. The most common indication is osteoarthritis of the knee. Blood loss is significant during the post-operative period and blood transfusion when necessary has its own drawbacks. The use of intravenous tranexamic acid has significantly reduced blood loss. We analysed 35 patients who underwent staged bilateral TKA between August 2013 and February 2016 and had administered intra-articular tranexamic acid for one knee and intravenous tranexamic acid for the other knee. The results were analysed based on post-operative blood loss, change in haemoglobin (Hb) level and haematocrit (PCV) and the need for blood transfusion. The average postoperative blood loss was 129.57 ml and 277.71 ml for intra articular group and intravenous group respectively. A control group (no drug or placebo group) with age matched patients (n= 21) was chosen from medical records. The average blood loss in the control group was 493.81 ml. The fall in Hb level and PCV was 0.72 gm/dl and 2.62 % (Intra-articular Group), 1.36 gm/dl and 4.34 % (Intravenous Group) and 2.62 gm/dl and 5.52 % (Control). The number of transfusions were two (Intra-articular Group), five (Intravenous Group) and nine (Control). We conclude that when compared with intravenous route, intra-articular administration has significantly reduced blood loss, Hb level and PCV fall and the rate of blood transfusion.
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