Introduction: The performance of the drilling process depends on the characteristics of the drilling equipment and surgeon’s skill. To our knowledge, no research has focused on multi-parameter analysis of the dynamic behaviour of drills during the drilling process. This study aimed to characterise the physical changes and effects of different drills attached to a robotic arm during drilling of artificial bones in a standardised experimental setup.
Materials and Methods: Drilling processes using three brands of drills attached to a robotic arm were compared in terms of thrust force, vibration, noise level, speed deviation, and temperature. A standardised experimental setup was constructed, and measurement data were analysed statistically. Identical artificial bones were drilled 10 times with each drill.
Results: Thrust force measurements, which varied through the cortex and medulla, showed expressive differences for each drill for maximum and mean values (p<0.001). Meaningful differences were obtained for mean vibration values and noise level (p<0.001). Speed variation measurements in drilling showed conspicuous differences with confident statistics (p<0.001). Induced temperature values were measured statistically for Drill 1, Drill 2, and Drill 3 as 78.38±11.49°C, 78.11±7.79°C, and 89.77±7.79°C, respectively.
Conclusion: Thrust force and drill bit temperature were strongly correlated for each drill. Vibration values and noise level, which also had an influential relationship, were in the acceptable range for all experiments. Both thrust force and speed deviation information could be used to detect the drill bit status in the bone while drilling.
Abstract | Reference