Introduction: Post-operative acute kidney injury is a serious complication and identifying modifiable factors could assist in peri-operative management. This study aimed to identify the pre-operative and intra-operative factors associated with the incidence of post-operative acute kidney injury and acute deterioration of kidney function after total hip arthroplasty.
Materials and methods: This single-center, retrospective, observational study included 203 patients who underwent unilateral primary total hip arthroplasty. Acute kidney injury was determined using biochemical markers according to the risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria. Acute deterioration of kidney function was defined as the reduction of estimated glomerular filtration rate by ≥10ml/min/1.73m2.
Results: Prior to total hip arthroplasty, 20% of all patients met the chronic renal dysfunction criterion of glomerular filtration rates <60ml/min/1.73m2 (glomerular filtration rate categories G3a-G5). Incidence rates of acute kidney injury and acute deterioration of kidney function after total hip arthroplasty were 0.49% and 6.9%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed that diabetes mellitus and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs before total hip arthroplasty were significant risk factors for acute deterioration of kidney function. Advanced age, preoperative renal dysfunction, antihypertensive, diuretics, or statin use, operation time, total blood loss, type of anesthetic, and body mass index were not significant risk factors.
Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were controllable risks, and multidisciplinary approaches are a reasonable means of minimising peri-operative acute kidney injury or acute deterioration of kidney function.
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