Introduction: With a higher proportion of young individuals undergoing uncemented hip arthroplasty, a close match in the dimension of the proximal femur and the implanted prosthesis is paramount. This is a study to gain insight into geographical variation in proximal femur morphology to determine the reference values to design uncemented femoral stems for a south Indian population, and also the effect of ageing and gender on the proximal femur morphology.
Materials and Methods: The study comprised of two groups. For the first group, 50 unpaired dry femur bones were obtained from adult human cadavers; and the second group was a clinical group of 50 adult patients. Standardised radiographic techniques were used to measure the extracortical and intra-cortical morphometric parameters. Based on these, dimensionless ratios were calculated to express the shape of the proximal femur. The data were expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation and a comparison made with other studies.
Results: A significant difference was noted across various population subsets within the Indian subcontinent and also in comparison to the Western population, suggestive of regional variation. The measurements made in cadaveric bone differed significantly from those in live patients, especially the femoral head diameter and extra-cortical and intracortical width. Femoral offset, head height and diameter were significantly less in females.
Conclusion: The south Indian population needs customized implants with an increase in neck shaft angle and a decrease in intra-cortical and extra-cortical width for press fit in hip arthroplasty. The variation between the two sexes must also be accounted for during prosthesis design.
Abstract | Reference