Incidence of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Sickle Cell Disease in Patients Undergoing Spinal Surgery in South Gujarat, India: A Prospective Observational Study
Introduction: Our objective of this study was to assess the incidence of Deep Venous Thrombosis in patients including those with sickle cell disease who underwent spine surgery, and also to determine the association of Sickle Cell Disease as a clinical predictor for Deep Venous Thrombosis in spinal surgery patients.
Materials and methods: All patients who underwent spinal surgery from January 2016 to October 2016 were included in this study. Detailed history, demographic data, physical findings, pre-operative haematological and radiological investigations were documented. All the patients underwent daily clinical evaluation for clinical signs of Deep Venous Thrombosis and also underwent a post-operative venous Doppler and D-dimer test.
Results: Seventy-nine consecutive patients were included in the study with the mean age of 41 years. All patients had normal venous Doppler pre-operatively. A total of 2.5% patients had deep vein thrombosis in bilateral lower limbs while 2 patients (2.5%) had evidence of venous stasis but no thrombosis on Doppler ultrasound done post-operatively. Nine patients (11.4%) were sickle cell positive from which 4 patients showed evidence of Deep Venous Thrombosis or Venous Stasis. D-dimer was positive in 5 (8.3%) patients which included 4 patients with Sickle Cell Disease.
Conclusion: This study concludes that Sickle Cell Disease is a risk factor for developing Deep Venous Thrombosis in patients undergoing spinal surgery. The study also concludes the effectiveness of mechanical prophylaxis in preventing Deep Venous Thrombosis and recommends pharmacological prophylaxis after assessing the risk profile or positive D- dimer test.
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