Bifocal Stabilisation of Acute Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation using Suture Anchor and Temporary K-Wires: A Retrospective Analysis
Introduction: The acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is a major link connecting the upper limb to the torso. The acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments help in stabilising the joint. We feel it is prudent to address both these ligament injuries, to achieve optimum result. This study was undertaken to analyse the results of a simple frugal surgical technique we used to deal with this injury considering stabilisation for both these ligaments.
Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, skeletally mature patients with Type III, IV or V ACJ dislocations who underwent open reduction and stabilisation of the joint with temporary K-wires, repair of the capsule and augmentation of CC ligaments with suture anchors were included. Clinico-radiological and functional outcome was evaluated. Functional assessment of the upper limb was analysed using the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Score (DASH), Constant shoulder score (CSS) and Oxford shoulder score (OSS).
Results: Clinical and radiological evaluation of the 32 patients who had completed two years from the index surgery, was done. Out of the 37 patients included initially, five were lost in follow-up. Majority of the subjects included were males and type V was the most common injury. Mean pre-operative CC distance on the affected side was 13.92±4.94mm. In the immediate post-operative radiograph, it was 7.63±2.08mm and in the final follow- up was 9.36±2.75mm. Measurements were taken by two independent investigators and inter, and intra-observer reliability were analysed by Interclass correlation coefficient. Excellent functional outcome was noted despite the 1.81±1.50mm average loss of correction. At final follow- up, mean DASH score was 4.67±4.18, Oxford shoulder score was 44.06±2.44 and Constant shoulder score was 86.37±5.81. The severity of the injury had no significant effect on the functional outcome post our method of stabilisation and rehabilitation.
Conclusion: Bifocal fixation restores the multidirectional stability of the disrupted ACJ. Adequate radiological reduction, good functional outcome and simplicity of execution make this technique an undemanding one for use in regular practice.
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