Is Follow-up Co-Morbidity Assessment via Laboratory Investigations in Older High Energy Trauma Patients Justified? - A Prospective-Retrospective Study
Introduction: The objective of the current study was to test our hypothesis that older patients sustaining high energy trauma need to be evaluated for their comorbidities similar to geriatric patients sustaining low energy trauma.
Materials and methods: This study was a retrospective-prospective analysis of 173 patients of more than 50 years of age enrolled between November 2017 and December 2018. Herewith, we have compared retrospectively collected laboratory investigations of 124 fragility fracture patients with prospectively collected laboratory investigations of 49 patients with high energy trauma. The laboratory investigations, including the liver function tests, renal function tests, indices of calcium metabolism, serum electrolytes, complete blood counts, and bone mineral density (BMD) scores.
Results: Both groups were similar to each other as far as baseline demographic characteristics were concerned. The proportion of female patients and patients with non-osteoporotic range BMD (T-score >-2.5) was significantly higher in the high-energy fracture group (P value <0.05). Hypoalbuminemia (<3.4gm/dl) 17.3%, abnormalities sodium (<135mmol/L or >148mmol/L) 23.2%, Anaemia (<10g/dl) 12.7%, Hypercalcemia (>10.4mg/dl) 16.3%, Vitamin D deficiency (<20ng/ml) 17.3% are the common laboratory abnormality found in study population. No statistically significant difference was found among the two groups in terms of laboratory investigation abnormalities.
Conclusion: The laboratory investigation abnormality in an older patient with a clinical fracture is independent of the mechanism of injury. The results of the current study emphasise the need for a comprehensive laboratory workup in older patients with either high- energy fractures or fragility fractures.
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