Injectable Scaffold with Microfracture using the Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC) Technique: A Prospective Cohort Study
Introduction: Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) is a one-step surgical cartilage repair procedure involving the insertion of a scaffold into the chondral defect after microfracture. BST-CarGel [Smith and Nephew, Watford, England] is an injectable chitosan-based scaffold which can more easily fill defects with irregular shapes and be used to treat vertical or roof chondral lesions. The study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of knee cartilage repair with microfracture surgery and BST-CarGel using the AMIC technique for a minimum of two years.
Materials and methods: A prospective study of patients undergoing cartilage repair with microfracture surgery and BST-CarGel at our institution from 2016 to 2019 was performed. Clinical outcomes were determined using the Lysholm Knee Scoring System and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). These questionnaires were administered before the surgery and at a minimum of two years after surgery.
Results: A total of 21 patients were identified and recruited into the study. 31 cartilage defects were seen and treated in 21 knees. These included horizontal lesions (e.g., trochlear, lateral tibial plateau), vertical lesions (e.g., medial femoral condyle, lateral femoral condyle) and inverted lesions (e.g., patella). No complications or reoperations were seen in our study population. For the average duration of follow-up of 42.5±8.55 months, there was an average improvement in Lysholm score of 25.8±18.6 and an average improvement in KOOS score of 22.5±15.0.
Conclusion: BST-CarGel with microfracture surgery using the AMIC technique is a safe and effective treatment for cartilage defects in the short to medium term.
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