MOJ Header

Current Issue - March 2023, Volume 17, Issue No. 1

Official Journal of Malaysian Orthopaedic Association and ASEAN Orthopaedic Association

The Wave Sign Correlates with the Posterior Horn Medial Meniscus (PHMM) Tear in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Deficient Knee


Introduction: A posterior horn medial meniscus (PHMM) tear subjects the knee to pathological stresses, especially in the setting of a deficient anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). These PHMM tears have to be surgically addressed, however they remain a diagnostic challenge. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the wave sign as an arthroscopic diagnostic aid for the PHMM tear which may be occult.

Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study of 61 consecutive patients (62 ACL-deficient knees) who underwent arthroscopic primary ACL reconstruction between September 2017 and August 2018. We defined PHMM tears as tears located in the posterior one-third of the medial meniscus. Root tears and ramp lesions were included in our analysis. The arthroscopic findings were recorded after a comprehensive arthroscopic survey.

Results: In the sample of ACL-deficient knees, 44 (71.0%) had a concomitant medial meniscus tear. The most common location for the tear was in the posterior horn (81.8%). There were seven occult PHMM tears, not described by the radiologist or identified by the operating surgeon on the pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging. The wave sign was identified in 10 (16.1%) knees, all confirming the presence of the PHMM tear. A positive correlation was found between the presence of the wave sign and the PHMM tear.

Conclusions: The wave sign has a statistically significant but weak positive correlation with the presence of the PHMM. We view the wave sign as a valuable arthroscopic cue to rule-in the presence of the PHMM tear in the ACL-deficient knee.

Abstract   |   Reference

MOJ footer

About Us

The Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal is a peer-reviewed journal that is published three times a year in both print and electronic online version. The purpose of this journal is to publish original research studies, evaluation of current practices and case reports in various subspecialties of orthopaedics and traumatology, as well as associated fields like basic science, biomedical engineering, rehabilitation medicine and nursing.

Keep in Touch

creative-commons License